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Author Topic: CATHOLIC TEACHING ON THE USE OF STATUES AND IMAGES IN WORSHIP  (Read 215 times)

Rosy

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CATHOLIC TEACHING ON THE USE OF STATUES AND IMAGES IN WORSHIP
INTRODUCTION:
Non-Catholics accuse Catholics of violating God’s “second commandment” by idol worship or the sin of idolatry: "You shall not make for yourself a graven image or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: you shall not bow down to them or serve them" (Ex. 20:4–5); "Alas, this people have sinned a great sin; they have made for themselves gods of gold" (Ex. 32:31). They interpret the ordinary Catholics kneeling or bowing before statues and images, lighting candles and offering flowers as violation of the commandment. They think that Bible does not warrant any use of statues, images and icons in Christian worship. They also accuse Catholics of purposely omitting the “second commandment” (Ex. 20:4–5) from their list of Ten Commandments in their Catechisms to justify their “idol worship.” In the Old Testament, the Jewish people were taught that the name of God cannot be pronounced and God cannot be imaged because no image is adequate to express the Godhead. Before answering this accusation and clearing the misunderstanding, it is good to remember what the late Archbishop Fulton Sheen said, “There are not one hundred people in this world who hate Catholicism, but there are millions who hate what they mistakenly believe Catholicism to be.” The following explanation and arguments will serve to remove some of the misconceptions of our non- Catholic friends.
The Catholic explanation:

The Catholic Church teaches and has always taught that idolatry is a serious sin and a gross violation of God’s Commandments. Since the days of the Apostles, the Catholic Church has consistently condemned the sin of idolatry. The early Church Fathers warned against this sin, and Church councils also dealt with the issue. The ‘iconoclastic’--or 'image-breaking' controversy, resulting from the Manichaean heresy, broke out in the eighth century. The Imperial [Eastern half of the Roman Empire] troops smashed images and riots broke out throughout the Empire. In 730 John of Damascus wrote that physical aids to worship were valid because God took on matter in the man Christ Jesus. In 787 the Church ruled exactly to what extent images could be used in worship in order to avoid idolatry. The Second Council of Nicaea (787) spoke against idolatry and against those heretics (Manicheans) who considered everything material as evil and misinterpreted the Church’s use of statues and images: “They failed to distinguish the holy from the profane, asserting that the icons of our Lord and of His Saints were no different from the wooden images of satanic idols." In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Protestant Reformers stripped Catholic Churches of images, broke statues and stained glass. The Catechism of the Council of Trent (1566) taught that idolatry is committed "by worshipping idols and images as God, or believing that they possess any divinity or virtue entitling them to our worship, by praying to, or reposing confidence in them" (374). Images of Jesus, Mary and the saints have been used for decorational and devotional purposes since the beginning of Christianity. The Council of Trent explained the practice perfectly. “The images of Christ, the Virgin Mother of God, and the other saints are kept and honored in churches not because it is believed that there is any divinity or power in these images, or that anything may be asked of them or any faith put in them. The honor shown to them is really being given to the person whom they represent. Through these images which we kiss, and before which we bow with bared heads, we worship Christ and not the saints whose likeness they display.” The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC), states clearly, "Idolatry is a perversion of man’s innate religious sense. An idolater is someone who ‘transfers his indestructible notion of God to anything other than God’" (CCC #2114).

The Bible which bans idolatry sanctions statues and images:

The Bible presents God as commissioning statues and images for religious usage in Exodus 25:18-20; 7:13-51; Ezekiel 41:17–18, 1 Kings 6:23; Numbers 21:6-9 and Judges 17:1-6 and 1 Chr. 28:18–19:1. God commanded the Israelites to make statues of Cherubim. Examples include Ex. 25:18–20; 1 Chr. 28:18–19 and Ezekiel 41:17–18. In Chapter 25 of Exodus the people are told to make images of cherubim to fit on the top of the Ark of the Covenant. These images were to help the people understand the importance of the ark. Exodus. 25:18"And you shall make two cherubim of gold [i.e., two gold statues of angels] of hammered work shall you make them, on the two ends of the mercy seat.” Exodus.26.1: When He gave instructions for the tabernacle, God told Moses to weave images of angels into the curtains. 1 Chronicles 28:18-19 – tells how David gave Solomon the plan for an altar made of refined gold and "a golden chariot of the cherubim that spread their wings and covered the ark of the covenant of the Lord." Ezekiel 41:17-18 – The Prophet describes graven (carved) images in the idealized temple he was shown in a vision. He writes, “On the walls round about in the inner room and on the nave were carved likenesses of cherubim.”
God instructs Moses to erect a brazen serpent on a pole as God’s symbol of healing:
In a plague of serpents sent to punish the Israelites during the Exodus, God told Moses to "make [a statue of] a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and every one who is bitten, when he sees it shall live (Num. 21:8–9). One had to look at the bronze statue of the serpent to be healed, which shows that statues could also be used ritually, not merely as religious decorations. It is when people began to adore a statue as a god that the Lord became angry. Thus when people did start to worship the bronze serpent as a snake-god (whom they named "Nehushtan"), the righteous king Hezekiah had it destroyed (2 Kgs. 18:4).
Other objects and acts of veneration and healing mentioned in the Bible include:

Joshua 5:14 – Joshua fell prostrate in worship before the angel, honoring the power of the Lord God Who had sent His messenger; 2 Kings 13:20-21 – Contact with Elisha’s bones restored life; Matthew 9:20-23 – A hemorrhaging woman was cured through touching the hem of Jesus’ cloak; Acts 5:15-16 – Cures were performed through Peter’s shadow; Acts 19:11-12 – Cures were granted to the sick when a cloth that had touched the skin of St. Paul was laid upon them.
Logical conclusions:
1) There is no ban on statues and images of beings other than God:
God allowed the statues of Cherubim in the Old Testament to help people to open their minds and hearts and turn them back to God, which clearly means that the Old Testament does not forbid the crafting of images of heavenly creatures other than God. In Catholic art, we create images of the angels, Mary and the saints; these are not gods, but rather creatures of God, who help us understand what God has done for us. Sacred images, part of the culture and worship of the first Christians, are seen in the catacombs (the underground tunnels serving as tombs). Are these figures idols? No! There is a spiritual reality that these image represent, while idols have neither value nor meaning because there is no reality behind them. So let us be very clear: In the Biblical sense, images of Christ and the saints are not idols because there are spiritual and physical realities in the glorified bodies of Christ and his beloved saints whom the images represent. But when an idol is destroyed, nothing remains.
2) God’s ban on statues and images is only for those made to be worshipped in themselves:
God does not ban the use of images even for religious ritual as in the case of the bronze serpent. God forbids the worship of images as gods, but He doesn’t ban the making of images. God doesn’t prohibit the making of statues or images of various creatures for religious purposes (cf. 1 Kgs. 6:29–32, 8:6–66; 2 Chr. 3:7–14). It is when people begin to adore a statue as a god that the Lord becomes angry (2 Kgs. 18:4). A Catholic who may kneel in front of a statue while praying isn’t worshipping the statue or even praying to the statue but to the one whom the statue represents. God forbade the worship of statues, but he did not forbid the religious use of statues. Instead, he actually commanded their use in religious contexts!
3) There is no ban on the “use” of statues and images for religious reasons. Catholics use statues, paintings, and other artistic devices to recall the person or thing depicted. Just as it helps one to remember one’s mother by looking at her photograph, so it helps us to recall the example of the saints by looking at pictures of them. Catholics also use statues as teaching tools. In the early Church images and statues were especially useful for the instruction of the illiterate. Catholics also use statues to commemorate certain people and events, much as Protestant churches have three-dimensional nativity scenes and use religious greeting cards, and T-Shirts with the image of Jesus. One good example is the use of photographs. Protestants may not have statues or images in their churches, but they have photographs of their loved ones in their wallets, on their office desks, in their homes. If they got a chance to meet a famous person, they would at least take a photo with him and have it framed up on the wall. A photograph is also a graven image, so is having a photo of granddad on the wall, would be idolatry, if God had forbidden all making and use of images. If He had, then religious movies, videos, photographs, paintings, and all similar things would be banned. What non-Catholics often fail to recognize is the distinction between thinking a piece of stone or plaster is a god and desiring to remember Christ and the saints visually by making statues of them in their honor. The making of statues is a thoroughly Biblical practice.
History of Jewish and Christian representation of God:
Early in its history, Israel was forbidden to make any depictions of God because God had not revealed Himself in a visible form. Given the pagan culture surrounding them, the Israelites might have been tempted to worship God in the form of an animal or some natural object (e.g., a bull, as in fact they did in the desert when Moses was up on Mt. Sinai with the Lord God, and were punished for it). But later God did reveal himself under visible forms, such as in Daniel 7:9: "As I looked, thrones were placed and one that was Ancient of Days took his seat; his raiment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames, its wheels were burning fire." Protestants make depictions of the Father under this form when they do illustrations for Old Testament prophecies. The Holy Spirit revealed himself under at least two visible forms—that of a dove, at the baptism of Jesus (Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:22; John 1:32), and as tongues of fire, on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1–4). Protestants use these images when drawing or painting these Biblical episodes and when they wear Holy Spirit lapel pins or place dove emblems on their cars. But, more important, in the Incarnation of Christ his Son, God showed mankind an icon of Himself. Paul said, "He is the image (Greek: ikon) of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation." Christ is the tangible, divine "icon" of the unseen, infinite God.
Church history marred by iconoclasm and the iconoclasts:
Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called "iconoclasts." In the eighth century a group of Christians in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire started to object to the use of icons in worship. They were influenced by two heresies--Monophysitism, which lessened the physical side of Jesus' nature and Manicheanism, which taught that the physical world was evil. These heresies made people suspicious of physical things like icons and statues. Soon the controversy erupted into violence. The Empress sent her storm troops to invade churches and destroy all religious artwork in God's name. The defenders of icons were outraged. There were riots among the people while the theologians exchanged tracts and lobbied the Pope. For over one hundred years the quarrel raged back and forth. The old argument resurfaced in the Western Church during the Protestant Reformation when the reformers, anxious to do away with abuses, shortsightedly did away with all imagery. The debate continues today with Christians who are not able to interpret the Old Testament in light of the image of Christ. The Catholic use of many forms of sacred art, including statues and pictures of Jesus, crucifixes, and the cross, are consistent with a theological anthropology that affirms the goodness of matter, and provides a means by which our human sense of sight and appreciation of beauty can be engaged in liturgical and devotional prayer.
Origin of the theology of statues and images:
The dogmatic foundation for the cult of icons is the Incarnation. It was at the time of iconoclasm that the theology of icons was enunciated by St. John Damascene (749 AD). He argued (in Discourses) that material images of holy things were acceptable because God clothed himself in matter when he took human form in Jesus. “Previously God, who has neither a body nor a face, absolutely could not be represented by an image. But now that he has made himself visible in the flesh and has lived with men, I can make an image of what I have seen of God…and contemplate the glory of the Lord, his face unveiled.” (St. John Damascene). The Old Testament forbade images because in the Old Covenant God had revealed Himself only by word. In the New Testament, the Word becomes an image by the incarnation of the word in Jesus. Indeed in Col. 1.15 Paul calls Jesus, the 'image of the unseen God'. Before the incarnation no images of God were allowed because we were waiting for the ultimate 'icon' of God--the man Christ Jesus. Now that God has given us his true image in Christ, the images we make simply reflect back to him. “For in Jesus dwells the whole fullness of the Deity, bodily…” – Colossians 2:9. “What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we looked upon and touched with our hands concerns the Word of life – for the life was made visible…” – 1 John 1:1-2 . So our images of Christ remind us of Jesus and our images of the saints remind us that they were living images of Jesus Christ in the world. So, in other words, we use physical images to remind us that God took a physical image in Christ and that we are meant to be his icons in the world. Because God took on this material world in Jesus, we continue to use material things in our worship. Because He is the creator God, and we are made in his image, we fashion material things into images which reflect His glory. So images, when used properly, become physical pointers to Christ--the image of the unseen God, the one by whom God created the physical world, and in whom all physical things subsist. When we venerate the image it is a way for us to express love and devotion for the person the image represents.
Misunderstanding of Catholic expressions of veneration as worship:
Sometimes anti-Catholics cite Deuteronomy 5:9, where God said concerning idols, "You shall not bow down to them." Since many Catholics sometimes bow or kneel in front of statues of Jesus and the saints, anti-Catholics confuse the legitimate veneration of a sacred image with the sin of idolatry. Though bowing can be used as a posture in worship, not all bowing is worship. In Japan, people show respect by bowing in greeting (the equivalent of the Western handshake). Similarly, a person can kneel before a king without worshipping him as a god. In the same way, a Catholic who may kneel in front of a statue while praying isn’t worshipping the statue or even praying to it, any more than the Protestant who kneels with a Bible in his hands when praying is worshipping the Bible (Bibliolatria)or praying to it.
False accusation that the Catholic Church hid the “second commandment.” Another charge sometimes made by Protestants is that the Catholic Church "hides" the second commandment. This is because in Catholic catechisms, the first commandment is often listed as "I am the Lord, your God. You shall not have other gods before me" (Ex. 20:3), and the second is listed as "You shall not take the name of the Lord in vain." (Ex. 20:7). From this, it is argued that Catholics have deleted the prohibition of idolatry to justify their use of religious statues. But this is false. Catholics simply group the commandments differently from most Protestants. In Exodus 20:2–17, which gives the Ten Commandments, there are actually fourteen imperative statements. To arrive at Ten Commandments, some statements have to be grouped together, and there is more than one way of doing this. For example, Catholics, along with the Jews, and the Protestants typically summarize the Sabbath commandment as, "Remember the Sabbath to keep it holy," though the commandment’s actual text takes four verses (Ex. 20:8–11). When the prohibition of polytheism/idolatry is summarized, Catholics along with the Jews, and the Lutherans abbreviate it as "You shall have no other gods before me." Martin Luther himself recognized that the imperatives against polytheism and idolatry are two parts of a single command. This is no attempt to "hide" the idolatry prohibition (Jews and Lutherans don’t even use statues of saints and angels). It is to make learning the Ten Commandments easier. That is why the present Catechism of the Catholic Church follows the division of the Commandments established by St. Augustine, which has become traditional in the Catholic Church. (L-13).


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